Plato's dialogues tell us that before the advanced Greek civilization, there once was another highly advanced civilization called "Atlantis", and was a huge island that was larger than (former) Libya (North-Africa) and Asia (Asia Minor) put together. Plato's account is regarded by many as the most credible account of a possible ancient lost civilization.
Quoted from Plato's "Timaeus" (21a-27b):
"Now in this island of Atlantis there was a great and wonderful empire which had rule over the whole island and several others, and over parts of the continent, and, furthermore, the men of Atlantis had subjected the parts of Libya within the columns of Heracles as far as Egypt, and of Europe as far as Tyrrhenia. [todays Etruria]"
Atlantis was situated beyond the "Columns of Heracles", also known as the Pillars/Columns of Hercules and is known today as the Strait of Gibraltar). If one travels from the Mediterranean Sea beyond the Strait of Gibraltar one will find themselves within the vast Atlantic Ocean. For generations its people lived virtuous lives until greed and power began to corrupt them. The final destruction of Atlantis happened some 9,500 years before Plato's time, when the land disappeared in the depths of the sea due to violent earthquakes and floods. The dialogue "Timaeus" mentioned that, during Plato's time, there was an impassable and impenetrable shoal of mud in these parts of the sea that was caused by the subsidence of the island. There are many scholars today who believe that Plato's story about Atlantis was merely a fictional account, a possible metaphor, because there is no known land or civilization which fits its descriptions. However, both dialogues "Timaeus" and "Critias" seem to implicate a purely historical account with so much detail that would be quite unnecessary for merely a metaphor.
In the dialogue "Critias" Plato wrote that Atlantis was founded by Poseidon - known in Greek mythology as "the god of the sea" - who did fell in love with a mortal woman named Cleito. Cleito gave birth to five sets of twin boys, and the domain was divided amongst them. The eldest, named Atlas, became the first king of Atlantis. In Greek mythology Atlas was the bearer of the heavens, and Greek historian Herodotus mentioned that Atlas was in fact a lofty mountain that by the Atlantean natives was seen as the pillar of the heaven:
"After this at a distance of ten days' journey there is another hill of salt and spring of water, and men dwell round it. Near this salt hill is a mountain named Atlas, which is small in circuit and rounded on every side; and so exceedingly lofty is it said to be, that it is not possible to see its summits, for clouds never leave them either in the summer or in the winter. This the natives say is the pillar of the heaven. After this mountain these men got their name, for they are called Atlantians; and it is said that they neither eat anything that has life nor have any dreams."
(Source: Herodotus History Book IV, 184.)
Poseidon had his own temple within the citadel of Atlantis City. Its exterior was entirely covered with silver and its pinnacles with gold, and the interior of the temple was of ivory, gold, silver, and an legendary material called "orichalch" (or orichalcum) which appeared to shone like fire, even to the pillars and floor.
Today most scholars agree orichalcum would have been a brass-like alloy, which was made in antiquity by cementation. This process was achieved with the reaction of zinc ore, charcoal and copper metal in a crucible. During early 2015, divers had recovered 39 ingots from a ship that sunk some 2,600 ago off the coast of Sicily. Analyzed with X-ray fluorescence, these ingots turned to be an alloy made with 75 to 80 percent copper, 15 to 20 percent zinc and small percentages of nickel, lead and iron. Therefore it is possibly that this material could be the legendary material orichalch. (See this news report from news.discovery.com. More photo's are shown at: arquivosdoinsolito.blogspot.nl and revistagalileu.globo.com.)
The temple contained a colossal statue of Poseidon standing in a chariot drawn by six winged horses, about him a hundred Nereids riding on dolphins. Arranged outside the building were golden statues of the first ten kings and their wives.
Because of the excessive use of noble metals within the large construction, the description of the temple of Poseidon seems similar to the description of the "Valhalla" from Norse mythology, which had been described in the Poetic Edda as appearing shining and golden. According to the vikings, Valhalla was the domain of the god Odin, and a kind of heaven for the slain soldiers which were brought to him by the Valkyries (Odin's warrior maiden). It seems that the mythologic place "Asgard"; the residence of the gods, was in fact Atlantis City as described by Plato. It is also reminiscent of of the temple of the "LORD", as described in the apocryphic book: "The Book of Enoch". In chapter 14:8-23 of the book this temple is described with an interior and a floor made out of crystal stones, where the roof appeared like agited stars and flashes of lightning, where a flame burned around its walls, and where its portal blazed with fire. Perhaps this wasn't real fire but merely the reddish shimmering of the material orichalc.
As Plato mentioned in his dialogues that one was already familair with the god Poseidon during the Atlantean times it probably means that the origins of Greek mythology were much older than the Greek civilization itself (as we know it today) and therefore they could be traced back to the age of the civilization of Atlantis. Could it be that these origins of Greek mythology, these testimonies from Atlantis, could have been spread to other parts of the world where it was passed on from where it ultimately took the form of the Greek, Norse and ancient Mesopotamian mythologies?
On the island Santorini (classically named Thera), which like Crete was part of the Greek archipelago, there would have been a devastating earthquake and a vulcanic eruption around 1628 BC. Although some think that Plato described the demise of this island, he explicitly mentioned that Atlantis was situated past the Columns of Heracles, which marks the beginning of the Atlantic Ocean, when sailing from Greece. Also, the period of the demise of Santorini (between 1627-1600 BC) doesn't match the period of the demise of Atlantis which Plato mentioned.
Kircher's map of Atlantis from the time frame around 10,000 BC.
Athanasius Kircher (1601-1680), a rennaissance man very much like Leonardo da Vinci, made a map (seen above) based on Plato's descriptions in his book "Mundus Subterraneus" (The Underground World) in ca. 1665. (Note that north is shown down and south is shown up.)
Vasilis Pashos' comprehensive map of the whole continent of Atlantis during its much earlier times.
(Possibly around 20,000 BC)
The map shown above had been drawn in the year 1979 by writer and researcher Vasilis Pashos, founder of the Atlantis Museum in Athens. It is based on ancient data of, amongst others; Plato ("Timaeus" and "Critias"), Diodoros Sikeliotis ("Historic Bookcase"), Poseidonios (Kikeron's teacher), and the work: "Collection of travellers' narrations" by the geographer Marchellus.
Perhaps they think it must be an
because they simply could not believe it? There doesn't seem to be any
good reason to exclude the possibility without any doubt
that these couldn't be some kind of remnants from a sunken
ancient civilization while on the other hand it is located near a place
that Plato possibly could have been descriped in his dialogs. (See the
more information about this peculiar grid pattern.)
there is relatively little written history left of a civilization which
would have existed for such a long time could be due to the destruction
of the great library of Alexandria in Egypt. This library was possibly
library that has ever existed on earth; A large source of ancient
literature, which for thousands of years had been the Western world's
most important center of learning. Historians tell us that it was
conceived and opened either during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter
(323-283 BC) or his son Ptolemy II (283-246 BC), though its kept
could have been much older, and could possibly have contained more
the ancient continent and civilization of Atlantis.
As read in the writings of the Greek historian Plutarch; Julius Caesar "accidentally" burned down the library, but probably not completely. In this time, a daughter library in the Serapeum temple still existed. It was finally completely destroyed during the conquest of Egypt by the Arabs in the year 642 AD. In 2004, a Polish-Egyptian excavation team announced its discovery of the remains of the long lost lecture halls, or auditoria of the library (BBC news), which proved without any doubt that this great library truely had existed. According to Edgar Cayce the library was initially estalished in the year 10,300 BC (Edgar Cayce reading 315-4).
Could it be that among these lost books there were more books about Atlantis, and could this be the most important reason why we know relatively little about Atlantis and her civilization, even though according various sources it would have existed for ten-thousands of years. There is actually a lot been written about Atlantis, even in this day and age; It is even said that it is the most documented subject in the history of literature. It is possible that it is referred to in ancient Hindu texts and it also became the subject of numerous esoteric, occult and theosofical works, and clairvoyant readings. However, many of the presented claims about Atlantis still remain to be proven for it to be regarded as factual evidence. Shirley Andrews which summarizes geologic and metaphysical evidence in her book: "Atlantis: Insights from a Lost Civilization" (1997).
name "Atlantis" is a remarkable name; It
is often thought to be connected to the god Atlas from Greek mythology:
one of the sons of the god Poseidon and the first king of Atlantis.
origins of this name may be traced back to Nahuatl; the
language of the Aztecs. The name seems to be a composition of several
words from the Nahua language; "atl" is the word for "water" and
"atlan" means: in the middle of the water. (The word "antis" means:
"copper".) "Azteca" (Aztec) is the Nahuatl word for "people from
Wikipedia), and Aztlán can be translated to:
to the history of the Aztec people of
Mesoamerica, they originally came from a now lost land called "Aztlán",
described like an island. The Aubin Codex tells that on Aztlán, the
Aztecs fled from a tyrannical elite (the Azteca Chicomoztoca) and
settled themselves into another land where they called themselves
Mexica. (Scholars of the 19th century named them "Aztecs" again to
distance modern Mexicans from pre-conquest Mexicans.)
More (possible) references to Atlantis by historians and other sources:
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